Main article: 'Land of ', from the colonial name ( ), which erroneously derived a toponym from the title ('conquering ngola', a priestly title originally denoting a 'chief smith', then eventually 'king') held by (: Dambi Angola) as lord of, a state in the highlands between the and. [ ]: 'Ancient', corrected from earlier Antego, a truncation of the Santa Maria la Antigua, bestowed in 1493 by in honor of the ('Virgin of the Old Cathedral' ), a revered mid-14th-century icon in the Chapel of La Antigua in.: 'Bearded' in, corrected from earlier Barbado, Berbuda, Barbouthos, &c. This may derive from the appearance of the island's or from the beards of the.
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Main article: 'Southern Land' in, adapted from the legendary pseudo-geographical ('Unknown Southern Land') dating back to the Roman era. First appearing as a corruption of the Spanish name for an island in in 1625, 'Australia' was slowly popularized following the advocacy of the in his 1814 description of his circumnavigation of the island., a, used the word in his dispatches to England and recommended it be formally adopted by the Colonial Office in 1817. The Admiralty agreed seven years later and the continent became officially known as Australia in 1824. In Flinders' book he published his rationale: 'There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will ever be found in a more southern latitude; the name Terra Australis will, therefore, remain descriptive of the geographical importance of this country, and of its situation on the globe: it has antiquity to recommend it; and, having no reference to either of the two claiming nations, appears to be less objectionable than any other which could have been selected.'
(Antarctica, the hypothesized land for which the name Terra Australis originally referred to, was sighted in 1820, and not explored until decades after Flinders' book had popularized this shift of the name.) Oz, a colloquial endonym: Likely a contraction from above. Traces the name to the 1939 film,, but the records the first occurrence as 'Oss' in 1908. 's original predates this and may have inspired the name, but it is also possible Baum himself was influenced by Australia in his development of Oz., a former name: 'New ' in (: Nieuw Holland), after the Dutch province, bestowed by the Dutch explorer in 1644. For the further etymology of Holland, see the below. Main article: 'The Shallows', from the name boo de las Bahamas, likely from a variant spelling of baja mar ('low' or 'shallow sea') in reference to the reef-filled. First attested on the c.
1523 'Turin Map', Bahama originally referred to alone but was used inclusively even in English by 1670. The Spanish name has been alternately derived from a of the name of Grand Bahama, Ba ha ma (lit. 'Big upper middle land'), [ ] or from the of 's whose became conflated with Caribbean legends about and.
Main article: 'The Two Seas' in ( , al-Baḥrayn). However, the question of which two seas were originally intended remains in dispute. A popular relates Bahrain to the 'two seas' mentioned five times in the. The passages, however, do not refer to the modern island but rather to the opposite modern Bahrain. It is possible Bahrain (previously known as ) simply acquired its name when that region became known as, but today the name is generally taken to refer to the island itself. The two seas are then the bay east and west of the island, the seas north and south of the island, [ ] or the salt water surrounding the island and the fresh water beneath it which appears in wells and also bubbling up at places in the middle of the gulf. An alternate theory offered by al-Ahsa was that the two seas were the and a peaceful lake on the mainland; [ ] still another provided by is that the original formal name Bahri (lit.
'belonging to the sea') would have been misunderstood and so was opted against. Main article: Etymology unknown. Traditionally derived from a transcription of ', a Scottish buccaneer who established an eponymous settlement (on Spanish maps, Valize and Balize ) along the (which he also named after himself) in the early 17th century. Alternatively taken from the word beliz ('muddy water'), presumably in reference to the river, or from Africans who brought the name with them from. Adopted in 1973 while still a of the. A previous took it from the ('beacon')., a former name: See and below.
Main article: Etymology unknown. Names similar to Bhutan—including Bottanthis, Bottan, Bottanter—began to appear in Europe around the 1580s. 's 1676 Six Voyages is the first to record the name Boutan. However, in every case, these seem to have been describing not modern Bhutan but the. The modern distinction between the two did not begin until well into 's 1774 expedition—realizing the differences between the two regions, cultures, and states, his final report to the formally proposed labeling the 's kingdom as 'Boutan' and the 's as 'Tibet'. Subsequently, the EIC's surveyor general first anglicized the French name as Bootan and then popularized the distinction between it and greater Tibet. The name is traditionally taken to be a transcription of the Bhoṭa-anta ( भोट-अन्त, 'end of '), in reference to Bhutan's position as the southern extremity of the Tibetan plateau and culture.
'Bhutan' may have been truncated from this or been taken from the name Bhutān (भूटान). It may also come from a truncation of Bodo Hathan ('Tibetan place'). [ ] All of these ultimately derive from the endonym Bod. An alternate theory derives it from the Bhu-Utthan ( भू-उत्थान, 'highlands'). Druk Yul, the local endonym: 'Land of the Thunder Dragon' in (འབྲུག་ཡུལ་). Variations of this were known and used as early as 1730.
The first time a Kingdom of Bhutan separate from Tibet did appear on a western map, it did so under its local name as 'Broukpa'. Main article:: 'Land of the river ' in, first attested in the 's 958. (The 12th-century also mentions an 8th-century source for the name which, however, has not survived.) 'Bosna' was the medieval name of the classical Bossina. Proposed a connection with the proposed roots *bos or *bogh ('running water'). Certain sources [ ] similarly mention Bathinus flumen as a name of the Bosona, both of which would mean 'running water' as well. Other theories involve the rare Bosina ('boundary') or possible origins.: 'Duchy' or 'Dukedom', an of Herzog ('duke') and the ('-land').
The duke was, of Bosnia, who proclaimed himself 'Duke of and the Coast' and then either proclaimed himself or was bestowed the title [ ] 'Duke of of ' by the around 1448. The Ottoman formed in the area after its 1482 conquest was simply called Hersek, but the longer Croatian form was adopted by and English. [ ] 'Country of the ' in, after the country's dominant ethnic group. The etymology of 'Tswana' is uncertain. Derived it from the Setswana tshwana ('alike', 'equal'), others from a word for 'free'. However, other early sources suggest that while the Tswana adopted the name, it was an exonym they learned from the Germans and British.
•, a former name: from 'Bechuana', an alternate spelling of 'Botswana'. See also: ', from the Terra do Brasil, from ('brazilwood', lit. 'red-wood'), a name derived from its similarity to red-hot embers (: brasa). The name may have been a translation of the ibirapitanga, also meaning 'red-wood'. [ ] The ending -il derives from the diminutive suffix -ilus. The appearance of, 'Hy-Brazil', or 'Ilha da Brasil' on maps as early as the c. 1330 of sometimes leads etymologists to question the standard etymology.
While most of these islands of Brazil are found off the coast of and may be taken to stem from a rendering of the legendary, the 1351 places one Brazil near Ireland and a second one off the near. That use may derive from its or reference its, a red resin dye. Regardless, the initial names of present-day Brazil were Ilha de Vera Cruz ('Island of the True Cross') and then – after it was discovered to be a new mainland – Terra de Santa Cruz ('Land of the Holy Cross'); this only changed after a -based merchant consortium led by leased the new colony for massive exploitation of the costly dyewood which had previously been available only from India. Pindorama, a former name: 'Land of the Palm Trees' in, the language of the Indians of Paraguay and southwest Brazil. [ ] Britain [ ] See the below. Main articles: and Named for the, the nation's largest ethnic group, a correction of 18th-century 'Bermah' and 'Birma', from Birmania, probably from Barma in various, ultimately from Bama (), a colloquial oral version of the literary Myanma (), the eventual pronunciation of the Mranma, first attested in an 1102 inscription as Mirma, of uncertain etymology.
It was not until the mid-19th century that King referred to his position as 'king of the Myanma people', as it was only during the that Burmans fully displaced the Mon within the. The Indian name is alternatively derived from Brahmadesh (: ब्रह्मादेश), 'land of '. [ ] A of Myanma derives it from myan ('fast') and mar ('tough', 'strong'). [ ], the present endonym: As above. The terminal r included in the official English translation arose from the nation's status as a and reflects accents such as. [ ] 'Land of the speakers' in Rundi, adopted upon independence from -occupied in 1962. Main article: Etymology unknown.
The name dates to the 'men of Chilli', the survivors of the first Spanish expedition into the region in 1535 under. Almagro applied the name to the valley, but its further etymology is debated. The 17th-century Spanish chronicler derived it from the Chili, a toponym for the valley, which he considered a corruption of Tili, the name of a who ruled the area at the time of its conquest by the. Modern theories derive it from the similarly named Incan settlement and valley of Chili in 's, the Quechua chiri ('cold'), the tchili ('snow' or 'depths' ), the chilli ('where the land ends' or 'runs out'), or the Mapuche cheele-cheele ('). A confuses the name to, sometimes via the chile ('chili'), but the two are almost certainly unrelated. Ruiz Zafon El Juego Del Angel Pdf Gratis. Main article: Etymology uncertain, but probably 'The forest' or ' in reference to the forests of southern. First attested in as Denamearc in 's translation of 's Seven Books of History against the Pagans.
The etymology of ' is uncertain, but has been derived from the proposed root *dhen ('low, flat'); -mark from the proposed root *mereg- ('edge, boundary') via merki ('boundary') or more probably mǫrk ('borderland, forest'). The former derived the name from an eponymous king of the region. [ ] Etymology unknown, named for its eponymous capital, founded in 1888 by the and the capital of the previous and. 'Land of ', after the. [ ], a former name: From its position near today's, distinguishing it from and.
For the further etymology of France and Somalia, see below and., a former name: From the country's two main ethnic groups, the and. Main article: 'Land of the ', a correction of earlier Esthonia, a re- of the Estland, a development of the Aestland, a combination of the Aestia and the German -land ('-land'). The name Aestia was a combination of the Latin Aesti and the locative suffix, meaning 'Land of the Aesti', who were most likely later or other people in and east of later. The name drifted to denote people north of Old Prussians (i.e. 'east' along the Baltic Sea shore), eventually settling down to denote only the modern (Finnic, i.e.
Non-Baltic) Estonian territory in the 12th and 13th century, as fixed. The was named Estmere in Old English, deriving from the Old Prussian Aīstinmari ('Sea/Lagoon/Bay of the Aesti') and is still called Aistmarės in Lithuanian. The name Aesti possibly derives from ('East') as Proto-Balts lived east of Proto-Germanic people. It was first attested by the Roman historian in 98 AD, but mentioned the name Aestyi and the Greek geographer and explorer mentioned Ostiatoi already in 320 BC. The Estonian endonym Eesti was first attested in writing as Estimah in 1638, as a combination of the name Est- and the word -mah ('land'), which is still used as an alternative name Eestimaa in modern Standard Estonian. A similar name is used in as Ēstimō. The name variant Eest- was a development of through the influence of Eestland.
The endonym Eesti was popularized during the, with great influence from the of the first Estonian daily newspaper in 1857. The older Estonian endonym Maavald is a combination of the words maa ('land', 'country' or alternatively 'soil') and vald ('parish'), meaning 'Land/Country Parish'. The people were called maarahvas ( rahvas - 'people') and the language was called maakeel ( keel - 'tongue'/'language'), meaning 'People of the Land/Country' and 'Land/Country language' respectively. The Finnish name Viro is derived from the Northeastern Estonian, which was closest to Finns along the shore.
Similar names can be found in other Northern Finnic languages. The Latvian name Igaunija and name Igauneja are derived from the Southeastern Estonian. Main article: 'Warrior King', adopted at 's suggestion upon the union of Gold Coast with British Togoland in 1956 or upon independence on 6 March 1957, in homage to the earlier, named for the title of its ruler.
[ ] Despite the empire never holding territory near the current nation, traditional stories connect the northern of Ghana – the,,, and – to peoples displaced following the collapse of the old Ghana. [ ] and, former names: See below., a former name: Self-descriptive. Compare the names Europeans gave to nearby stretches of shore, as above. [ ] See etymology of 'Great Britain' under the below. Main articles:,,, and 'Land of the ' in Latin, from Greek Ινδία, from Old Persian Hindu ( 𐎢𐎯𐎴𐎡𐏃), the Old Persian name of the, ultimately derived from Sanskrit Sindhu ( सिन्धु), the original name of the. ( ), a native name:, commonly derived from the name of either of two ancient kings named. However, it is in reference to pre-partitioned lands (not all part of the either).
[ ] ( ), a native & former name: 'Land of ', from, from Hindustān ( هندوستان), a compound of Hind (, 'Sind') and ('land', see above). The terms 'Hind' and 'Hindustan' were used interchangeably from the 11th century by Muslim rulers such as the sultans [ ] and used by the alongside 'India' to refer to the entire subcontinent including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma, and parts of Afghanistan since the 17th century [ ] and for specifically the northern region surrounding the since the 19th century. [ ] ( ), a native name: for 'land of Aryans' [ ]. Main article: One theory is that it is derived from the city of Erech/ (also known as 'Warka') near the river. Some archaeologists regard Uruk as the first major city.
However, it is more plausible that name is derived from the Middle Persian word Erak, meaning 'lowlands'. The natives of the southwestern part of today's Iran called their land 'the Persian Iraq' for many centuries (for Arabs: Iraq ajemi: non-Arabic-speaking Iraq). Before the constitution of the state of Iraq, the term 'Iraq arabi' referred to the region around Baghdad and Basra. • (ancient name and Greek variant): a loan-translation (Greek meso- (between) and potamos (river), meaning 'Between the Rivers') of the ancient Semitic Beth-Nahrin, 'Land of two Rivers', referring to the and rivers.
Main article: 'El(God) persists/rules'. 'Israel' and related terms 'the people of Israel' ( `Am Isra'el עם יִשְׂרָאֵל) and 'the Children of Israel' ( Benei Isra'el בני יִשְׂרָאֵל) have referred to the in its literature from antiquity. The name ( יִשְׂרָאֵל – literally: 'will Struggle with God'), originates from the as an appellation given to the biblical patriarch. According to the account in the, Jacob wrestled with a stranger at a river ford and won – through perseverance. God then changed his name to Israel, signifying that he had deliberated with God and won, as he had wrestled and won with men. Main articles:,, and After, probably from the Kere Nyaga ('White Mountain'). • (former name): after its geographical position on the continent of and the former colonial power, ().
See also Britain, above, and Africa on the page. From the Kikuyu word Kirinyaga a contraction of Kirima nyaga 'Ostrich mountain', so called because the dark shadows and snow-capped peak resemble the plumage of a male Ostrich.
The neighbouring Kamba tribe do not have the 'R' and 'G' sound in their language and called it 'Keinya' when acting as guides to a German explorer. It is often erroneously believed it comes from Kirima Ngai 'Mountain of God' [ ].
Main article: From Madageiscar, a corruption of popularized. [ ] Possibly based on a native word meaning 'flaming water' or 'tongues of fire', believed to have derived from the sun's dazzling reflections on.
But President, the founding President of Malawi, reported in interviews that in the 1940s he saw a 'Lac Maravi' shown in 'Bororo' country on an antique French map titled 'La Basse Guinee Con[t]enant Les Royaumes de Loango, de Congo, d'Angola et de Benguela' and he liked the name 'Malawi' better than 'Nyasa' (or 'Maravi'). 'Lac Marawi' does not necessarily correspond to today's. Banda had such influence at the time of independence in 1964 that he named the former 'Malawi', and the name stuck. • (former name): Nyasa literally means 'lake' in the local indigenous languages. The name applied to, formerly (Niassa).
Main articles: and 'Land of the Malays': a combination of and the Latin/Greek suffix -sia/-σία. Malayadvīpa (: मलयद्वीप) was the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula.
In modern terminology, 'Malay' is the name of an of predominantly inhabiting the and portions of adjacent islands of, including the east coast of, the coast of, and smaller islands that lie between these areas. A theory suggests that the word Melayu ('Malay') is derived from the / terms melayu or mlayu (to steadily accelerate or to run), to describe the strong current of a river in that today bore the name Sungai Melayu. The name was later possibly adopted by the that existed in the 7th century on Sumatra.
The continental part of the country bore the name (literally 'Malay Land') or Malaya until 1963, when Federation of Malaysia was formed together with the territories of, and (the latter withdrew in 1965). The name change indicated the change of the country's boundaries beyond. Malaysian refers to its citizens of includes the native aboriginal people, while Malay refers to the, which makes up about half of the population. Main article: From either. Of the two cultures, available evidence suggests that the Greeks had an earlier presence on the island, from as far back as 700 BC.
The Greeks are known to have called the island Melita ( Μελίτη) meaning ', as did the Romans; solid evidence for this is Malta's domination by the from 395 through to 870. It is still nicknamed the 'land of honey'. The theory for a Phoenican origin of the word is via 𐤈𐤄𐤋𐤀𐤌 Maleth meaning 'a haven'. The modern-day name comes from the, through an evolution of one of the earlier names. [ ] Named after British captain, who first documented the existence of the islands in 1788. The family name is rendered Majeļ̧ in. [ ] Latin for 'land of the Moors'.
Misnamed after the classical in northern, itself named after the Berber or tribe. [ ] Named Prins Maurits van Nassaueiland in 1598 after (1567–1625), of Holland and (1585–1625). Main article: The name 'Nepal' is derived from 'Nepa' as mentioned in the historical maps of South Asia. 'Nepa' literally means 'those who domesticate cattle' in the Tibeto-Burman languages. The land was known by its people the Nepa or Nepar, Newar, Newa, Newal etc., who still inhabit the area i.e.
The valley of Kathmandu and its surroundings. The Newa people use 'Ra' and 'La' or 'Wa' and 'Pa' interchangeably, hence the different names mentioned above.
Some say it derives from the word nīpālaya (Sanskrit: नीपालय), which means 'abode at the foot of mountain', referring to its proximity to the. (Compare the analogous European toponym '.) Others suggest that it derives from the niyampal, which means 'holy land'. Main article: Netherlands literally means Low countries or Lowlands. Dutch neder and its English nether both mean 'down(ward), below'.
The English word is now uncommon, mostly replaced by lower in English. Neder or nether may simply have denoted the geographical characteristics of the land, both flat and down river. This may have applied to the singular form Nederland, or Niderland. It was a geographical description of low regions in the Germanic lands. Thus it was also used to refer specifically to the of the, and, including the Lower Rhineland.: 37, a former name: From the region of Holland within the Netherlands, often used by for the country as a whole.
'Holland' from the Germanic holt-land ('wooded land'), although often as 'hollow' or 'marsh land')., a former and poetic name: From the name of the Germanic tribe. See also: After the province of in the, which means 'sea land', referring to the large number of islands it contains. Referred to New Zealand as Staten Landt, but later Dutch cartographers used Nova Zeelandia, in, followed by Nieuw Zeeland in, which later to New Zealand.
• has become the most common name for the country in the, supplanting the loan-phrase Niu Tireni. Aotearoa conventionally means 'land of the long white cloud'. • in both and, meaning 'New ' ( Sealtainn), itself from a form of Shetland. Gaelic speakers seem to have folk-etymologised Zeeland when translating New Zealand's name from English. Main article: A merger coined by the Spanish explorer after, a leader of an indigenous community inhabiting the shores of and agua, the Spanish word for 'water'; subsequently, the ethnonym of that native community. [ ] In English, Niger may be pronounced. Named after the, from a native term Ni Gir or 'River Gir' or from n'eghirren ('flowing water').
The name has often been misinterpreted, especially by Latinists, to be derived from the Latin niger ('black'), a reference to the dark complexions of many inhabitants of the region. [ ] After the that flows through the western areas of the country and into the ocean and Area. Main article: The name literally means ' the Pure' in and.
It was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by, a activist, who published it in his pamphlet, using it as an ('thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN') referring to the names of the five northwestern regions of the:,,,, and '. The letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation and form the linguistically correct and meaningful name. [ ] From the native name Belau ('Palau'), traditionally derived from aidebelau ('indirect replies'), in reference to the island's involving the destruction of the giant.
Belau, the local endonym: As above. Los Palos, a former name: A adaptation of the above. Pelew, a former name: From the transcription of Belau above by the captain, whose ship was wrecked off in 1783. Main article: From medieval Portucale, from Latin (modern and ). Portus is the Latin for 'port', but the meaning of Cale is debated.
Some derive it from the Greek kallis (καλλἰς, 'beautiful') or the Latin calēre ('to heat'). It likely was related to the, a who lived nearby north of the in pre-Roman times. The etymology of their name is also unknown, but may have been related to the divine hag.
• (ancient predecessor and literary variant): after the, probably of origin, as Lus and Tanus, 'tribe of Lusus'. Main articles: and The exact origin of the name is uncertain (see ). The name of the in present-day has the same origin. [ ] Named after, to King from 1754 to 1756. [ ] 'Lion Mountains'. Adapted from Sierra Leona, the version of the Serra Leoa. The explorer named the country after the striking mountains that he saw in 1462 while sailing the West coast.
It remains unclear what exactly made the mountains look like lions. Three main explanations exist: that the mountains resembled the of a, that they looked like sleeping lions, or that thunder which broke out around the mountains sounded like a lion's roar. Main article: Self-descriptive, from its location in. For the etymology of Africa, see., a local endonym: 'South Africa' in (alternative name): some opponents of the -minority rule of the country used the name Azania in place of '. The origin of this name remains uncertain, but the name has referred to various parts of sub-Saharan East. Recently, two suggestions for the origin of the word have emerged. The first cites the Arabic `ajam ('foreigner, non-Arab').
The second references the Greek verb azainein ('to dry, parch'), which fits the identification of Azania with arid sub-Saharan. Mzansi, an alternative endonym: a popular, widespread nickname among locals, used often in parlance but never officially adopted. ( uMzantsi in means 'south'.) [ ]. Main article: 'Home of the ', a -speaking ethnic group, with the suffix. Tājīk ( j pronounced //) was the local pronunciation of Tāzī, from Tāzīg, derived from the and meaning 'Arab'. The Tajiks were New Persian–speaking, although not necessarily Arabs.
(An alternate etymology [ ] is via Tag Dzig, meaning 'Persian' and 'tiger' or 'leopard'.) [ ] 'Land of and ', a and simplification of the original name – 'United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar' – assumed upon independence in 1964 Tanganiyika was named for its, of uncertain etymology. Sir derived it from the local tou tanganyka, 'to join' in the sense 'where waters meet.' Derived it from tonga ('island') and hika ('flat').
Zanzibar was an Arabic name meaning ' (: زنجبار, Zanjibār, from: زنگبار, Zangibar ) [ ]. For the etymologies of the UK's constituent countries, see Self-descriptive; short-form name of 'United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland', in reference to the island of and the of. Adopted in 1927 from the realm's previous name, the, following the 1922 creation of the (present-day ).
Albion, a previous and poetic name: From a adaptation ( Ἀλβιών) of a pre-Roman name for the island (See also '). [ ] The name may refer to the. [ ] Britain, an alternate name: From Britannia, probably via French [ ] or Welsh ( Prydain), [ ] from ('painted ones'), [ ] probably in reference to the use of body-paint and tattoos by early inhabitants of the islands, although it may derive from the.
[ ] A traditional mentioned by traced the name to the exile. Great Britain, an alternate name: 'Larger Britain', from Britannia Maior, first recorded by, who employed it to distinguish the from Britannia Minor ('Little Britain'), or in modern France. In classical times, the geographer in his also called the island megale Brettania (great Britain), contrasting it at that time to the smaller island of, which he called mikra Brettania (little Britain)., a former name: Self-descriptive, employed following the union of the English and Scottish crowns (1707) and prior to the union with Ireland (1801).
United Kingdom, an alternate name: a shortened form of the realm's official names above and below, although note that 'united kingdom' was used as a description but not the name of the kingdom formed by legally joining the and previously held in by the., a previous name: Adopted in 1801 from the previous names of the two kingdoms, and, following British and Irish legislation converting the of the British and Irish crowns into a single sovereign state. The name was emended to its present form in 1927, five years after the creation of the (present-day ).
See also: and Self-descriptive, although note that – similar to the original 'united Kingdom of Great Britain' above – the described the new nation as the (lower-case) 'united States of America'. The adjective had become a part of the name by the time of the adoption of the, however, whose preamble describes the 'United States'. Similarly, the grammatical number of the name has changed over time: common usage before the was to reference 'these United States' [ ] whereas modern usage has 'the United States'. United States of America, the full name: As above. For the etymology of America, see.
Montevideo Coordinates:: Founded 1724 Founded by Government • Type • Area • Capital city 201 km 2 (77.5 sq mi) • Metro 1,640 km 2 (633 sq mi) The area is 530 square kilometres (200 sq mi) and the conurbated built-up area 1,110 square kilometres (430 sq mi). Elevation 43 m (141 ft) Population (2011) • Capital city 1,305,082 • Density 6,726/km 2 (17,421/sq mi) • 1,719,453 • 1,947,604 • 1,319,108 montevideano (m) montevideana (f) Montevidean (English) () Postal code 11#00 & 12#00 (+598) 2XXX XXXX (2015) very high Montevideo ( Spanish pronunciation: ) is the capital and of. According to the 2011 census, the has a population of 1,319,108 (about one-third of the country's total population) in an area of 201 square kilometres (78 sq mi). The southernmost capital city in the, Montevideo is situated in the southern coast of the country, on the northeastern bank of the. The city was established in 1724 by a Spanish soldier,, as a strategic move amidst the - dispute over the.
It was also under brief. Montevideo hosted all the matches during the. Montevideo is the seat of the administrative headquarters of and, ’s leading trade blocs, position that entailed comparisons to the role of in Europe. The 2017 Mercer's report on, rated Montevideo first in Latin America, rank the city has consistently held since 2005. As of 2010, Montevideo was the 19th largest city economy in and 9th highest income earner among. In 2017, it had a of $44 billion, with a of $25,900.
In 2016, it was classified as a beta global city ranking eighth in and. Described as a 'vibrant, eclectic place with a rich cultural life', and 'a thriving tech center and entrepreneurial culture', Montevideo ranks 8th in Latin America on the 2013 Global Destination Cities Index. In 2014, it was also regarded as the 5th most gay-friendly metropolis in the world, first in Latin America. It is the hub of commerce and higher education in Uruguay as well as its chief port. The city is also the financial and cultural hub of a larger, with a population of around 2 million. Plaza Independencia around 1900.
In the early 20th century, many Europeans (particularly Spaniards and Italians but also thousands from Central Europe) immigrated to the city. In 1908, 30% of the city's population of 300,000 was foreign-born. In that decade the city expanded quickly: new neighbourhoods were created and many separate settlements were annexed to the city, among which were the,, the and. The and the were also established, which served as poles of urban development. During the early 20th century, Uruguay saw huge social changes with repercussions primarily in urban areas. Among these changes were the right of divorce (1907) and. The 1910s saw the construction of Montevideo's; strikes by tram workers, bakers and port workers; the inauguration of electric trams; the creation of the; and the inauguration of the new port.
In 1913, the city limits were extended around the entire gulf. The previously independent localities of the and were annexed to Montevideo, becoming two of its neighborhoods. During the 1920s, the equestrian statue of Artigas was installed in; the was built; the Spanish flying boat arrived (the first airplane to fly from Spain to Latin America, 1926); prominent politician and former president died (1929); and ground was broken (1929) for the (completed 1930). During World War II, a famous incident involving the German took place in, 200 kilometers (120 mi) from Montevideo. After the with the and on 13 December 1939, the Graf Spee retreated to Montevideo's port, which was considered neutral at the time.
Costco Sea Ray Program Comcast. To avoid risking the crew in what he thought would be a losing battle, Captain scuttled the ship on 17 December. Langsdorff committed suicide two days later. [ ] The eagle figurehead of the Graf Spee was salvaged on 10 February 2006; to protect the feelings of those still sensitive to, the on the figurehead was covered as it was pulled from the water. An old colonial feel to a street in Montevideo's Ciudad Vieja. Uruguay began to stagnate economically in the mid-1950s; Montevideo began a decline, later exacerbated by widespread social and political violence beginning in 1968 (including the emergence of the guerrilla ) and by the. There were major problems with supply; the immigration cycle was reversed. From the 1960s to the end of the dictatorship in 1985, around one hundred people died or because of the political violence.
From 1974 another hundred Uruguayans disappeared also in Argentina. In 1980, the dictatorship proposed a new constitution. The project was submitted to and rejected in the first polls since 1971, with 58% of the votes against and 42% in favour. The result weakened the military and triggered its fall, allowing the return of democracy. In the 1980s, Pope visited the city twice. In April 1987, as head of state of, he signed a mediation agreement for the conflict of the.
He also held a large mass in, declaring the cross located behind the altar as a monument. In 1988, he returned to the country, visiting Montevideo,, and.
21st century [ ] The affected several industries of Montevideo. In 2017, the city has maintained 15 years of uninterrupted economic growth, with a of $44 billion, and a of $25,900. Montevideo has consistently been rated as having the of any city in Latin America: by 2015 it has held this rank every year during the last decade. Geography [ ]. Map of the barrios of Montevideo As of 2010, the city of Montevideo has been divided into 8 political municipalities ( Municipios), referred to with the letters from A to G, including CH, each presided over by a mayor elected by the citizens registered in the constituency. This division, according to the Municipality of Montevideo, 'aims to advance political and administrative decentralization in the department of Montevideo, with the aim of deepening the democratic participation of citizens in governance.' The head of each Municipio is called an alcalde or (if female) alcaldesa.
Of much greater importance is the division of the city into 62 barrios: neighbourhoods or wards. Many of the city's barrios—such as, and —were previously geographically separate settlements, later absorbed by the growth of the city. Others grew up around certain industrial sites, including the works of and the in. Each barrio has its own identity, geographic location and socio-cultural activities. A neighbourhood of great significance is Ciudad Vieja, that was surrounded by a protective wall until 1829.
This area contains most important buildings of the colonial era and early decades of independence. Is the most populous Montevideo neighborhood. The architecture of Montevideo ranges from buildings such as the to the style of the or the 158-metre (518 ft), the tallest skyscraper in the country. The Along with the Telecommunications Tower, the dominates the skyline of the Bay of Montevideo.
The building facades in the Old Town reflect the city's extensive European immigration, displaying the influence of old European architecture. Notable government buildings include the, the City Hall, and the. The most notable sports stadium is the within. Parque Batlle, and are Montevideo's three great parks. The district, near the beach of the same name, has many homes built by Bello and Reboratti between 1920 and 1940, with a mixture of styles.
Other landmarks in Pocitos are the ' designed by Raul Sichero, and the 'Positano' and 'El Pilar' designed by and in the 1950s and 1960s. However, the construction boom of the 1970s and 1980s transformed the face of this neighbourhood, with a cluster of modern apartment buildings for upper and upper middle class residents. [ ] Palacio Legislativo [ ]. Officially opened in 1998, although work is still ongoing as of 2010. The complex is composed of three towers, two three-story buildings called World Trade Center Plaza and World Trade Center Avenue and a large central square called Towers Square.
World Trade Center 1 was the first building to be inaugurated, in 1998. [ ] It has 22 floors and 17,100 square metres of space.
That same year the avenue and the auditorium were raised. World Trade Center 2 was inaugurated in 2002, a twin tower of World Trade Center 1.
Finally, in 2009, World Trade Center 3 and the World Trade Center Plaza and the Towers Square were inaugurated. It is located between the avenues Luis Alberto de Herrera and 26 de Marzo and has 19 floors and 27,000 square metres (290,000 sq ft) of space. The 6,300-square-metre (68,000 sq ft) [ ] World Trade Center Plaza is designed to be a centre of gastronomy opposite Towers Square and Bonavita St.
Among the establishments on the plaza are, Walrus, Bamboo, Asia de Cuba, Gardenia Mvd, and La Claraboya Cafe. The Towers Square, is an area of remarkable aesthetic design, intended to be a platform for the development of business activities, art exhibitions, dance and music performances and social place. This square connects the different buildings and towers which comprise the WTC Complex and it is the main access to the complex. The square contains various works of art, notably a sculpture by renowned Uruguayan sculptor. World Trade Center 4, with 40 floors and 53,500 square metres (576,000 sq ft) of space is under construction as of 2010. [ ] Telecommunications Tower [ ]. Torre de las Telecomunicaciones (Telecommunications Tower) or Torre Antel (Antel Tower) is the 158 metres (518 ft), 37 floor headquarters of Uruguay's telecommunications company,, and is the tallest building in the country.
It was designed by architect. It is situated by the side of the Bay of Montevideo. The tower was completed by American Bridge and other design/build consortium team members on 15 March 2000. When its construction was announced, many politicians complained about its cost (US$40 million, plus US$25 million for the construction of the other 5 buildings of the Telecommunications Complex). Problems during its construction turned the original US$65 million price into US$102 million.
Ciudad Vieja (Old City) [ ]. Main article: Fortaleza del Cerro overlooks the bay of Montevideo.
An observation post at this location was first built by the Spanish in the late 18th century. In 1802, a beacon replaced the observation post; construction of the fortress began in 1809 and was completed in 1839. It has been involved in many historical developments and has been repeatedly taken over by various sides. In 1907, the old beacon was replaced with a stronger electric one.
It has been a National Monument since 1931 and has housed a military museum since 1916. Today it is one of the tourist attractions of Montevideo.
Punta Brava Lighthouse [ ]. Uruguayan officials conversing at a meeting at the Palacio Taranco, 6 November 2010 The is located in front of the, in the heart of Ciudad Vieja.
It was erected in the early 20th century as the residence of the Ortiz Taranco brothers on the ruins of Montevideo's first theatre (of 1793), during a period in which the architectural style was influenced by French architecture. The palace was designed by French architects and who also designed the and the in Paris.
It passed to the city from the heirs of the Tarancos in 1943, along with its precious collection of Uruguayan furniture and draperies and was deemed by the city as an ideal place for a museum; in 1972 it became the Museum of Decorative Arts of Montevideo and in 1975 it became a National Heritage Site. The Decorative Arts Museum has an important collection of European paintings and decorative arts, ancient and and Islamic of the 10th–18th century from the area of present-day Iran. The palace is often used as a meeting place by the Uruguayan government.
Museo Historico Nacional de Montevideo The National History Museum of Montevideo is located in the historical residence of General. It exhibits artifacts related to the history of Uruguay. In a process begun in 1998, the National Museum of Natural History (1837) and the National Museum of Anthropology (1981), merged in 2001, becoming the National Museum of Natural History and Anthropology. In July 2009, the two institutions again became independent.
The Historical Museum has annexed eight historical houses in the city, five of which are located in the Ciudad Vieja. One of them, on the same block with the main building, is the historic residence of Antonio Montero, which houses the Museo Romantico. See also: As the capital of Uruguay, Montevideo is home to a number of festivals and carnivals including a Gaucho festival when people ride through the streets on horseback in traditional gaucho gear. The major annual festival is the annual which is part of the national festival of, celebrated throughout Uruguay, with central activities in the capital, Montevideo. Officially, the public holiday lasts for two days on Carnival Monday and preceding, but due to the prominence of the festival, most shops and businesses close for the entire week.
During carnival there are many open-air stage performances and competitions and the streets and houses are vibrantly decorated. 'Tablados' or popular scenes, both fixed and movable, are erected in the whole city. Notable displays include 'Desfile de las Llamadas' ('Parade of the Calls'), which is a grand united parade held on the south part of downtown, where it used to be a common ritual back in the early 20th century. Due to the scale of the festival, preparation begins as early as December with an election of the 'zonal beauty queens' to appear in the carnival. Religion [ ] Church and state are officially separated since 1916 in Uruguay. The religion with most followers in Montevideo is Roman Catholicism and has been so since the foundation of the city. The was created as the of Montevideo in 1830.
The vicariate was promoted to the Diocese of Montevideo on 13 July 1878. Elevated it to the rank of a on 14 April 1897. The new archdiocese became the of the of,,,,,,,,.
Montevideo is the only archdiocese in Uruguay and, as its, the archbishop is also of the. The archdiocese's and thus seat of its archbishop is. As of 2010, the current Archbishop of Montevideo is,, since his appointment on 11 February 2014. Other religious faiths in Montevideo are,,, and there are many people who define themselves as and, while others profess 'believing in God but without religion'. Montevideo Metropolitan Cathedral [ ]. The (AFE) operates three commuter rail lines, namely the Empalme Olmos, San Jose and Florida.
These lines operate to major suburban areas of, and. Within the Montevideo city limits, local trains stop at, Yatai (Step Mill),, Columbus (line to San Jose and Florida), and (line Empalme Olmos) stations. The historic 19th century located in the neighbourhood of, six blocks from the central business district, was abandoned 1 March 2003 and remains closed. A new station, 500 metres (1,600 ft) north of the old one and part of the Tower of Communications modern complex, has taken over the rail traffic. (: MVD,: SUMU), which serves Montevideo, is located 12 miles (19 km) from the city centre. Several international airlines operate there. The airport serves over 1,500,000 passengers annually.
Is a private airport operated by minor charter companies. Public Transportation Statistics [ ] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Montevideo, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 65 min. 14.% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 14 min, while 18% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day.
The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 5.2 km, while 6% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.